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Tramadol Composition and Presentation

Tramadol serves as a central analgesic, intended to alleviate physical distress following significant injuries, surgical procedures, or in cases of advanced cancer. This medication is exclusively obtainable through a prescription.

The principal active ingredient within the medication is Tramadol hydrochloride. This compound falls under the category of opioid agonists, influencing specific receptors within the central nervous system to diminish pain sensitivity. Tramadol is classified as a mixed-acting analgesic. It is formulated in various presentations for both localized and systemic administration. Additionally, Tramadol Retard tablets are accessible, containing dosages of up to 200 mg, designed to exert a more prolonged effect.

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How to Administer Tramadol

Tramadol is prescribed for the purpose of alleviating symptoms and is recommended for short-term use. The specific treatment plan and dosage are contingent upon the patient's physical condition and age:

  • Oral Solution: For patients aged 14 and above, the prescribed dosage is 20 drops combined with a teaspoon of sugar or water once per day. If necessary, a subsequent dose can be taken 1-2 hours later. In the case of children under the age of 14, the dosage is 1 mg per kg.
  • Tablets and Capsules: These should be ingested with water, either before or after meals. The daily dose generally stands at 50 mg; however, for instances of acute pain, it can be escalated to 400 mg.
  • Subcutaneous, Intramuscular, or Intravenous Injections: Before administration, the contents of ampoules should be diluted in saline. The daily dose fluctuates between 50 and 400 mg. Intervals of 4 to 6 hours should be maintained between injections.
  • Rectal Suppositories: One suppository can be used 1 to 4 times a day.

Elderly individuals with renal or liver dysfunction should decrease the Tramadol dosage by half.

Usage Indications for Tramadol

This medication is employed to alleviate and mitigate pain stemming from diverse sources:

  • Physical traumas such as dislocations, fractures, severe burns, and soft tissue injuries.
  • Consequences following surgical procedures.
  • Painful invasive diagnostic measures.
  • Advanced-stage cancer discomfort.
  • Myocardial infarction-induced pain.
  • Neurological manifestations of pain.

Tramadol, available as injections, pills, capsules, and suppositories, is suitable for usage by both adults and children aged 14 and above. Tramadol in drop form is intended for patients starting from the age of 1.

Mechanism of Action of Tramadol

Upon entering the bloodstream, the primary active ingredient of the medication binds with different types of opioid receptors located in the brain and spinal cord. Consequently, the production of pain-related neurotransmitters diminishes, leading to a deceleration of nerve conduction.

The intensity of pain subsides due to Tramadol's influence on gastrointestinal receptors. The medication hinders the functioning of both cerebral hemispheres, imparting a tranquilizing effect. Additionally, it suppresses the cough reflex and impacts the respiratory center.

The onset of Tramadol's action occurs within 15-20 minutes and can persist for up to 6 hours, contingent upon the severity of pain. The most potent dosage form is the injectable solution. With extended use, the analgesic efficacy of Tramadol might wane, necessitating an escalation in dosage to maintain its effect.

Metabolized in liver tissues, the drug experiences partial elimination through unchanged form via the kidneys. In cases of cholecystitis, hepatitis, hepatosis, and other liver conditions, the half-life of Tramadol might surpass 2 days. During this period, the medication remains biologically active within the body.

Adverse Effects of Tramadol

The utilization of this medication can potentially result in sensations of dizziness, lethargy, excessive sleepiness, reduced appetite, and nausea. Infrequently, more uncommon side effects, often linked to overdose, comprise:

  • Impaired motor coordination
  • Rapid heart rate (tachycardia)
  • Visual or auditory hallucinations
  • Breathing difficulties (respiratory depression)
  • Episodes of vomiting and diarrhea
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Skin itching

In cases of drug intoxication, adverse outcomes could include urinary retention, cognitive confusion or loss of consciousness, cardiovascular collapse, and seizures. Prolonged utilization of the drug among women may contribute to disruptions in the menstrual cycle. It is essential to be mindful that protracted use of this medication carries the potential for the development of drug dependency.

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